Saturday, October 3, 2009

Panel 3: Childhood and vulnerability: Compounding risk during crises

Panel 3: Childhood and vulnerability: Compounding risk during crises
Chair and opening presentation: Jody Heymann, McGill University, Canada

Jody Heymann is the Founding Director of the Institute for Health and Social Policy, the WORLD Global Data Centre, and the Project on Global Working Families. An internationally renowned researcher on health and social policy, Dr. Heymann holds a Canada Research Chair in Global Health and Social Policy. She has authored and edited over 150 publications, including Profit at the Bottom of the Ladder (Harvard Business Press, forthcoming), Raising the Global Floor (Stanford University Press, 2009), Trade and Health (McGill Queens University Press, 2007), Forgotten Families (Oxford University Press, 2006), Healthier Societies (Oxford University Press, 2006) and Unfinished Work (New Press, 2005). Heymann has led the development of a unique graduate and undergraduate multidisciplinary training program that bridges research and policy development with students gaining experience in 18 countries.

Impact of the economic crises on early childhood: An examination of mediating pathways with implications for national policy. Pia Rebello Britto, Yale University, USA.

Abstract: Never before has the issue of child poverty been more vital and important for public policy, then during this present time of the global economic downturn. Currently it is estimated that over 1 billion children, worldwide, live in poverty. This rate is predicted to rise due to the financial crises. During the early years, young children bear the greatest burden of poverty as evidenced in the noted perverted health, development, and education outcomes. Yet, early childhood is the most sensitive period for development, health and education, most particularly if the potential for later catch-up in limited. Research has cogently demonstrated that poverty effects on young children are mediated through several proximal contextual pathways, such as household structure, home environment, caregiving practices and the primary caregiver. The proximal environments of low-income children contain a confluence of psychosocial and physical risk factors with known adverse developmental outcomes. It is these very pathways that are affected by financial, food and fuel shortages, with ramifications for young children’s development. At the same time, research on program interventions has also produced a formidable body of literature on how these pathways can be bolstered and sustained to improve early childhood outcomes.

The focus of the paper is on an examination of these proximal pathways with implications for policy directives. In particular the paper will present an analysis of the links between the macro level aspects of global economic crises and micro level aspects of psychosocial interactions and the physical proximal environment of the household. Also presented will be a range of proven program interventions known to address these pathways effectively. The aim of presenting these programs is to provide recommendations for national policy directives and potential governmental response.

Pia Rebello Britto’s area of expertise is early child development and education programming and policy. Dr. Rebello Britto is currently working, with Sharon Lynn Kagan and a UNICEF team, in over 15 countries on the development of national standards and indicators for monitoring child development outcomes. She is also working with national governments to formulate their early childhood policies and on evaluating early intervention programs in several countries. Domestically, Dr. Rebello Britto is conducting research to understand the experience of growing up Muslim in the United States and the influence of the present socio-political context on young Muslim children’s identity development.

Global economic crisis: The challenges of girl-child education and alternative jobs in Nigeria. Femi Tinuola, Kogi State University, Nigeria.

Abstract: UNICEF reported in 2006 that Nigerian children dropped-out-of-school work in public places i.e., the streets and markets with 64percent as street vendors and 13 percent as beggars. Real life experiences indicate that the current global economic crisis may have worsened the state of the Nigerian-girl- child in accessing education and finding alternative jobs risky to their health and well being. The Education Minister reported on April 25, 2008 that 62 percent of over 11 million children-of-school age who roamed the street are females. The UN, AU and Nigeria charters on the child rights guarantee access to education at all levels and eradication of all forms of child abuse. This study examines the effects of the GEC on the education of the girl-child and engagement in alternative jobs. This study was conducted among six ethnic groups in three States in Nigeria. Data were obtained from 1200 female children between 6 – 14 years selected on purposive random sampling technique in markets, motor parks, toll gates and streets, engaged in hawking. About 50 selected parents went through sessions on in-depth interview. They responded to a semi- structured questionnaire which contains items on demographic characteristics, educational history, parents’ economic conditions, hawking and paid housework.

Findings show that 45 percent recently dropped out of school and engaged hawking to enhance self and family economy, make an average of USD1 gains daily. Hawking takes place in crowded markets, hotels and busy road junctions. There are reported cases of child-sexual abuse for fee. Four percent of the children in paid housework were impregnated resulting in clandestine abortion and adolescence mothers. The need to improve the socio-economic conditions of parents and policy frame implementation that offer socio-economic protection for girl child will reduce the trend.

Femi Tinuola holds MSc Medical Sociology and Ph. D Degree in Population Health from University of Ado Ekiti, Nigeria with additional training under the WHO, Tropical Disease (TDR) in Ethics and Codes in research in Public Health. He is currently, Senior Lecturer, Population Health, Department of Sociology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria where he teaches and research in Health Sociology, Demography, Social Statistics and Research Methods. He specializes in Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights, Social Epidemiology and Population Health. He has been involved in the study of social, cultural and economic factors influencing sexual health and reproductive rights, health care utilization among young women in a Democratic Nigeria for about a decade. Dr Femi Tinuola, a scholarship recipient of the International Association for the Study of Sexuality and Culture, Peru,
Latin America and Population Council, Kenya, is a member of many International Academic Associations.

Children’s perspectives on risk and vulnerability in contexts of poverty and change. Uma Vennam, Oxford, Young Lives, UK.

Abstract: This exploratory paper is based on research carried out by Young Lives, a long-term study (2000-2015) of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam. The paper presents emerging analysis of research carried out in 2008 with a group of young people, aged 12 to 14, growing up in Andhra Pradesh. One aspect of the study was to elicit children’s views on changes over a one-year period (2007-2008) affecting their households and communities, including in relation to broader economic crisis. While a positive economic ‘turnaround’ has been noted for Andhra Pradesh in recent years, there is still a considerable degree of poverty and regional disparities. In our study, children identified both negative and positive changes in their households and communities, including the notable increase in food prices, which they viewed as a risk to child well-being. They described how financial crisis impacts on their time-use, for example, balancing school and work, as well as how they experience the various programmes aimed to protect them (Midday Meal Scheme, NREGS, child sponsorship, etc). They not only provide critical commentary on how economic and political changes impact on children, they also discuss how children and their families cope with change (for example by eating less or working more) and what communities and governments could do to better protect different groups of children in these contexts. Children’s views on risk and vulnerability reflected the differing circumstances of their livelihoods and of their local environments. They were knowledgeable and at times critical of the various services and programmes in their communities. Overall, their participation in the research was active and engaged and their insights into community change were indicative of their awareness and involvement in their household economies and wider societies. Their experiences demonstrated that children are not only ‘impacted’ by crisis, but that they are also active in managing the risks associated with poverty.

Uma Vennam has a MA in social work specialising in Urban and Rural Community Develompent from Tata Institute of Social Sciences Bombay, and holds a PhD form the University of East Anglia, Norwich, England. She is currently a professor of social work at Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visvavidyalayam. She has been involved in various projects dealing with poverty alleviation, rural livelihoods, SLMF, poverty and HIV/AIDS, trafficking in women and children, child labour and AIDS prevention

Crisis impacts on children vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Ken Legins, UNICEF.

Abstract: This paper focuses on the Triple F crisis and its potential effects on children living with and vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Children are often relatively invisible in global HIV/AIDS policy debates but given that globally they make up 6% of the infected population but 14% of total deaths, child-specific vulnerabilities deserve urgent attention. The paper begins by drawing on a modified version of a conceptual framework developed by Harper et al. (2009) to understand the impact pathways through which macro-level shocks are translated into meso- and micro-level impacts on children living with or vulnerable to HIV/AIDS and their care-givers. It then turns to a discussion of the effects of the crisis on children already infected by HIV as well as children likely to be rendered more vulnerable to infection, drawing on existing grey and published literature as well as interviews with select national and international governmental, international agency and non-governmental stakeholders. While this evidence is still very fragmented, it does highlight that significant worrying trends are already emerging. The next section of the paper then focuses on the policy choices national governments and international health financing donors are making in the context of the crisis. It considers both pre-existing HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention services, HIV/AIDS-specific and broader social protection programmes and crisis-specific responses. Section 5 then seeks to illustrate findings from Sections 3 and 4 through a select number of country snapshots from hyper-epidemic countries in Southern Africa; Thailand, as an example of a country where the pandemic has largely affected the commercial sex trade; and Russia, an example of a country where the pandemic tends to be concentrated among intravenous drug users, although is spilling over to the broader population as well. Section 6 concludes with key policy recommendations. These include the necessity of developing more child-sensitive crisis monitoring systems in order to better understand real time impacts on children, as well as the importance of maintaining and indeed scaling up investments in basic treatment and prevention services and social protection measures which treat the broader context in which HIV/AIDS infected populations live.

Ken Legins is currently the Senior Advisor, HIV Policy and Evidence, at UNICEF New York. Previously, Ken worked in Beijing as the UNICEF Chief of HIV/AIDS from 2004 to late 2008, working on such initiatives as the launch of the Chinese Campaign for Children and AIDS and a draft policy for the first child welfare system in China. Previous to China, Ken held positions in the UNICEF New York and the World Health Organization’s Regional Office in Europe, at which time he was stationed in Tirana, Albania during the Kosovo War. In the early 90’s Ken worked at the New York City Department of Public Health as a tuberculosis public health epidemiologist and as an HIV counselor at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta. Ken received his undergraduate degree from Bowdoin College in ‘92, and Masters in Public Health from Yale University in ‘95. He received the Common Good Award from Bowdoin in 2006. Ken has served on the board of the Global Business Coalition on AIDS, TB and Malaria in China, and New York City WNYC Radio Community Board from 2002-2004. Ken currently lives in New York City.


  1. Everyone has their favorite way of using the internet. Many of us search to find what we want, click in to a specific website, read what’s available and click out. That’s not necessarily a bad thing because it’s efficient. We learn to tune out things we don’t need and go straight for what’s essential.
    This goal-oriented way of surfing the web is largely based on short-term results. For example, finding facts to write a blog post, doing a comparison before making a purchase and reading a news site to find out what’s happening right now.

  2. I am a graduate of a Nigeria university seeking to have a global view of health by researching as a M.Sc student of medical sociology.I will to have update on how and where best to do this though i majored in soil and environmental sciences for my first degree. My e-mail address is

  3. I have been suffering hardship from HIV/AIDS since 7yrs now, and i happen to have 2 kids for my husband, and now we cannot proceed to have another kids all because of my disease and now i have do all what a human like i and my husband can do just to get my disease healed, i have went to several places to seek for help not even one person could ever help, until i melt a comment on the daily news paper that was commented by Desmond about how this powerful traditional doctor help him get cured of the disease (HIV-AIDS) " my fellow beloved" i firstly taught having a help from a spiritual traditional healer was a wrong idea, but i think of these, will i continue to stress on these disease all day when i have someone to help me save my life?" so i gather all my faiths and put in all interest to contact him through his Email address at so after i have mailed him of helping get my disease cured, he respond to me fast as possible that i should not be afraid, that he is a truthful and powerful doctor which i firstly claimed him to be. So after all set has been done, he promise me that i will be healed but on a condition that i provide him some items and obeyed all his oracle said. I did all by accepting his oracles fact and only to see that after some weeks of taking his herbal medicine i notice some changes in my body system and i went for check up the day he ask me to go for check up to confirm if the sickness was still there,to my greatest surprise i could not find any sickness in my body i was first shocked and later arise to be the happiest woman on earth after i have concluded my final test on the hospital by my doctor that i am now HIV- Negative. My papers for check are with me and now i am happy and glad for his miraculous help and power. With these i must tell everyone who might seek for any help, either for HIV cure or much more to contact him now at these following email now, Email:
    " sir thank you so much for your immediate cure of my disease, i must say a big thanks for curing my disease, i owe you in return. Thanks and be blessed sir.

  4. Dr Malawi is like a father to the fatherless.. i never believed these will really make a change in my marriage, and i never have it in my thought that i could ever been with my husband Mr Devis after divorcing and ending our 33 years marriage.... My life was upset i never knew where to start from when my husband broke up with me..... My name is Tanisha Devis from Poland but got married and live in Chicago USA, is the right email address to contact for an urgent help in getting your lover back.... My husband and I have been together for 33 years before he divorced me and i was so upset because i thought i have lost my marriage forever... i did all i could to please for my husband to bring me back home but all to be in vain.. i had to travel away from my state because i was not having anywhere to stay because my home was not conducive for me to stay because my husband want me out of the house, i travel to a friend of mine in California, one night, when i was searching on a good spell caster results that help in bringing back lost lover's and husband's, i found an interesting story that was shared by Santana Valdez From Texas Huston, about a good spell caster called Dr Malawi,and how he helped her in getting her husband back home, and i decided to put a try in contacting him... he replied me back.. i thought at first these was just normal and he told me that i was going to get back my husband after a period of 28 hours i still doubted him.... But today as i am sharing these good news is for me to express my experience to all the whole universe that these is a good spell caster that helps in bringing back lost lovers and he is ( I am happily with my husband and my 3 kids, TARRY, WENDY, JEFF... great Malawi i thank you for helping me to get my family back.... his email address is (

  5. Wow i never thought i will be happy in my life ever again, i want you all to thank DR OGUDUGU of GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM, he is a father that takes care of his children the spell caster of our time, he has saved me from a very ugly situation that almost made my life miserable and i want you all to thank him for me,my husband and i have be married for so many years now with children and the relationship was being threatened by a small girl in his working place,she was almost destroying my home i met so many spell casters but to no avail until i met a friend who came from Africa and she told me about DR OGUDUGU, and i decided to contact him and try him out as i was losing faith in all spell casters, but he told not to worry that now am in his temple everything will be alright he assured me 100% that his spell has no side effects and that it will work straight and save my home and my marriage and after he has performed the sacrifices and casting the spell, my husband came back to us with love and affection and he loved us more and more and he never looked back or none did his love for me waiver, if you are also experiencing this sort of your situation in your home, if your husband is drifting away, if you are experiencing a broken home or you have lost your husband to a young woman outside there then look no further help is here as GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM is ready to help you out okay for any of your problem is it financial needs, revenge spell, job spell, promotion spell what kind of spell do you need DR OGUDUGU is going to solve it for you okay i have promised him to always talk of his good works to the world in general and to any body who cares to listen, you can email him on his personal email on or GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM and he will attend to you as soon as possible okay.Traditional Healer, Witchcraft spells , lost love spells , Voodoo spells , Psychic stop cheating in your relationships now with a spell of love protection , lost love spells ,it takes 24hours to start it work 100% guarantee SAME DAY RESULT. HE CAN FIX THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS TO ALL ACROSS THE GLOBE ON: 1. Getting your lover or husband back 2. Spiritual bulletproof 3. Training 4. Money spell 5. Long life spell 6. Prosperity spell 7. Protection spell 8. Get a job spell 9. Becoming a manager spell 10. Get a huge loan without paying any fee spell 11. Getting your scam money back 12. Child spell 13. Pregnancy spell 14. Freedom spell 15. Love spell 16, vanishing spell 17. Invisible human spell 18. Success or pass spell 19. Marriage spell 20. Avenging spell 21. Popularity spell 22. Killing spell 23. Cancer spell 24. Supernatural power spell 25. Madness spell 26. Free house loan spell 27. Production spell of films and movie 28. Hiv/aids spell 29. Tuberculosis spell 30. Loose weight and body spell. once again his email is or GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM OR call +2348066421534.